Probably no other issue raised in 2006 concerns the students and the teaching community as much as that of the proposed reservation for the other backward classes. It raised a furore in the educational world last year and is still continuing to divide the student community. The government's first steps towards the implementation of the Mandal Commission’s recommendations led to widespread unrest, strikes in medical institutes and hospitals, student demonstrations, rallies and counter-rallies, hunger strikes, confrontations with the police, and burning of effigies. The arguments against reservation range from neglect of merit and lowering of standards in premier educational institutions to division of the country along caste-lines. On the other hand, the proreservationists plead the need for justice and the necessity for the upliftment of the backward communities, citing the example of the southern states where reservation has not hampered development. Since the backward castes form a sizable vote bank, and the Commission's recommendations had been accepted by the Parliament, no political party can afford to protest against reservation. Although the Left parties initially spoke of the elimination of the 'creamy layer,' they have, long since, withdrawn their reservation.
The government sought to pacify students by the compromising measures of the undisturbed 'general quota' and increase in student-intake. The teaching community too stands to gain somewhat from the proposed measure for the increased workload would create more teaching jobs and allow teachers of the central universities to work longer.
While the ministry had been all set to implement the 27% reservation for the OBCs from 2007-2008, the Supreme Court has recently questioned the rationale for the proposed figure of 27%, since we do not have valid data on castes and 'backwardness,' and the 1931 census data are evidently outdated and stayed the 'reservation' until July 2007. Although the mood of the protesting students is upbeat, the government is pointing out that the apex court has not opposed reservation in principle and is preparing to plead for an early hearing as they do possess some data.
However, at the risk of repetition, some questions perhaps may be reconsidered. Is reservation the best solution for the problem of 'backwardness?' Since the really backward categories scarcely reach the level of university education, how far could reservation meet their needs? By providing better education in the woefully inadequate state-run schools and preventing 'dropouts' at the early stage, the government could perhaps enable them to compete better. Instead of spending a huge sum on university education and increased students' intake, a substantial amount of funds could more profitably be channeled towards secondary/higher secondary education and many more scholarships may be offered to deserving school students. In the US affirmative action aided the AfroAmerican and Hispanic students in such ways.
Moreover, while caste is certainly a major factor of 'backwardness' in India, is it the only one? Many have referred to class and gender. We can scarcely overlook the fact that, unlike the SCs, some members of the backward castes are well-to-do and stick to their 'backwardness' in order to gain from reservation. That leads us to wonder whether reservation induces us to invest on 'backwardness.' Income would probably be a better criterion than caste. At least, elimination of the 'creamy layer' could certainly be thought of.
Also, we need to ensure that the increase of students does not lead to further lowering of standards in our universities. We do need adequate infra-structural facilities and the government should ensure proper student-teacher ratios before the central universities get swamped in the coming years.
B.A. Hindi (H), IInd Year
There's peace in this evening
Depth in the subtle wave.
Filling my chambers of heart
Smiles the nature cool and naïve.
Playful winds fondle my soul
Set my cords to pleasant tune.
Sun with smile, hides in cloud
In grey robe clads the noon.
O’er me sprinkling love
Stoops the vast and serene sky,
Happiness running all o’er me
Thoughts fly free and high.
Swinging tree jokes in moist breeze
And the parrots tweeting aloud,
Sing my fantasies – a pleasing tune
In the raindrops bright and proud.
How much I'm loving these moments
How much I’ve looked for this glee,
There’s bliss in the time, hum in the move
Loving calm in and around me.
— Dr. G. K. Varshney
The Government of India resolved that in order to ensure greater and more effective access to information, it is required that the Freedom of Information Act, 2002 must be made more progressive, participatory and meaningful. In view of the significant changes proposed by the National Advisory Council and others, it was decided to repeal the Freedom of Information Act, 2002 and enact another law for providing an effective framework for effectuating the right of information recognized under Article 19 of the constitution of India. To achieve this object, the Right to Information was enacted on 15th June, 2005, which came into force w.e.f. 12th October, 2005. the Act extends to whole of India except the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Raison Detre : Why The Right to Information Act?
Authorities take decisions in camera and don’t tell the whole story to the aggrieved. The aggrieved is told that his case has been rejected, he doesn’t qualify, he doesn’t deserve, he has failed and so on. This is all. "I am sorry to tell you the details are secret". This is the routine reply from the authority.
The poor guy wants to know each and everything about his rejection/non-selection/deprivation etc., etc. However, the man-in-power refuses to tell anything secret and scolds him on knowing the reality. Whereas, to know the reality is his genuine right. Hence came the Right to Information Act.
The Act provides for setting out a right to information for citizens to secure access to information which is under control of public authorities. The aim of the Act is to promote transparency and accountability in the working of every public authority; to contain corruption; to hold the government and its instruments accountable to the public; and to provide for certain information to the citizens who desire to have it for various reasons.
What does information mean?
Information means any material in any form including records, documents, memos, e-mails, opinions, advises, press releases, circulars, orders, logbooks, contracts, reports, papers, samples, models, data material held in any electronic form and information relating to any private body which can be accessed by a public authority under any other law for the time being in force but does not include "file notings"
What does Right to Information mean?
It includes the right to
i) inspect works, documents, records.
ii) take notes, extracts or certified copies of documents or records.
iii) take certified samples of material.
iv) obtain information in the form of printouts, diskettes, floppies, tapes, video cassettes or in any other electronic mode or through printouts.
What does a "public authority" mean?
It means any authority or body or institution of self-government established or constituted:
• by or under the Constitution;
• by any other law made by Parliament;
• by any other law made by State Legislature;
• by notification issued or order made by the appropriate Government and includes any
a) body owned, controlled or substantially financed
b) non-Government organization substantially financed directly or indirectly by the appropriate Government.
Who are Public Information Officers (PIOs)?
PIOs are officers designated by the public authorities in all administrative units or offices under it to provide information to the citizens requesting for information under the Act. Any officer, whose assistance has been sought by the PIO for the proper discharge of his or her duties, shall render all assistance and for the purpose of contraventions of the provisions of this Act, such other officer shall be treated as a PIO.
What are the duties of a PIC?
• PIO shall deal with requests from persons seeking information and where the request cannot be made in writing, to render reasonable assistance to the person to reduce the same in writing.
• If the information requested for is held by or its subject matter is closely connected with the function of another public authority, the PIC shall transfer, within 5 days, the request to that other public authority and inform the applicant immediately.
• PIO may seek the assistance of any other officer for the proper discharge of his/her duties.
• PIO, on receipt of a request, shall as expeditiously as possible, and in any case within 30 days of the receipt of the request, either provide the information on payment of such fee as may be prescribed or reject the request for any of the reasons to be specified.
• Where the information requested for concerns the life or liberty of a person, the same shall be provided within forty-eight hours of the receipt of the request.
• If the PIO fails to give decision on the request within the period specified, he shall be deemed to have refused the request.
• Where a request has been rejected, the PIO shall communicate to the requester - (i) the reasons for such rejection, (ii) the period within which an appeal against such rejection may be preferred, and (iii) the particulars of the Appellate Authority.
• PIO shall provide information in the form in which it is sought unless it would disproportionately divert the resources of the Public Authority or would be detrimental to the safety or preservation of the record in question.
• If allowing partial access, the PIO shall give a notice to the applicant, informing:
(a) that only part of the record requested, after severance of the record containing information which is exempt from disclosure, is being provided;
(b) the reasons for the decision, including any findings on any material question of fact, referring to the material on which those findings were based;
(c) the name and designation of the person giving the decision;
(d) the details of the fees calculated by him or her and the amount of fee which the applicant is required to deposit; and
(e) his or her rights with respect to review of the decision regarding non-disclosure of part of the information, the amount of fee charged or the form of access provided.
• If information sought has been supplied by third party or is treated as confidential by that third party, the PIO shall give a written notice to the third party within 5 days from the receipt of the request and take its representation into consideration.
• Third party must be given a chance to make a representation before the PIO within 10 days from the date of receipt of such notice.
What is not open to disclosure? [Section 8]
The following is exempt from disclosure:
i) information, disclosure of which would prejudicially affect the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security, strategic, scientific or economic interests of the State, relation with foreign State or lead to incitement of an offence;
ii) information which has been expressly forbidden to be published by any court of law or tribunal or the disclosure of which may constitute contempt of court;
iii) information, the disclosure of which would cause a breach of privilege of Parliament or the State Legislature;
iv) information including commercial confidence, trade secrets or intellectual property, the disclosure of which would harm the competitive position of a third party, unless the competent authority is satisfied that larger public interest warrants the disclosure of such information;
v) information available to a person in his fiduciary relationship, unless the competent authority is satisfied that the larger public interest warrants the disclosure of such information;
vi) information received in confidence from foreign Government;
vii) information, the disclosure of which would endanger the life or physical safety of any person or identify the source of information or assistance given in confidence for law enforcement or security purposes;
viii) information which would impede the process of investigation or apprehension or prosecution of offenders;
ix) cabinet papers including records of deliberations of the Council of Ministers, Secretaries and other officers;
x) information which relates to personal information the disclosure of which has no relationship to any public activity or interest, or which would cause unwarranted invasion of the privacy of the individual;
xi) notwithstanding any of the exemptions listed above, a public authority may allow access to information, if public interest in disclosure outweighs the harm to the protected interests.
Who is excluded?
Central Intelligence and Security agencies specified in the Second Schedule like IB, R&AW, Directorate of Revenue Intelligence, Central Economic Intelligence Bureau, Directorate of Enforcement, Narcotics Control Bureau, Aviation Research Centre, Special Frontier Force, BSF, CRPF, ITBP, CISF, NSG, Assam Rifles, Special Service Bureau, Special Branch (CID), Andaman and Nicobar, The Crime Branch-CID-CB, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Special Branch, Lakshadweep Police. Agencies specified by the State Governments through a Notification will also be excluded. The exclusion, however, is not absolute and these organizations have an obligation to provide information pertaining to allegations of corruption and human rights violations. Further, information relating to allegations of human rights valuations could be given but only with the approval of the Central or State Information Commission, as the case may be.
What is the Application Procedure for requesting information?
1. Apply in writing or through electronic means in English or Hindi or in the official language of the area, to the PIO, specifying the particulars of the information sought for.
2. Reasons for seeking information are not required to be given;
3. Pay fees as may be prescribed (if not belonging to the below poverty line category).
What is the time limit to get the information?
1. 30 days from the date of application
2. 48 hours for information concerning the life and liberty of a person
3. 5 days shall be added to the above response time, in case the application for information is given to Assistant Public Information Officer.
4. If the interests of a third party are involved then time limit will be 40 days (maximum period + time given to the party to make representation).
5. Failure to provide information within the specified period is a deemed refusal.
What is the fee?
1. Application fees to be prescribed which must be reasonable.
2. If further fees are required, then the same must be intimated in writing with calculation details of how the figure was arrived at;
3. Applicant can seek review of the decision on fees charged by the PIO by applying to the appropriate Appellate Authority;
4. No fees will be charged from people living below the poverty line
5. Applicant must be provided information free of cost if the PIG fails to comply with the prescribed time limit.
What could be the ground for rejection?
1. If it is covered by exemption from disclosure, as stated above [Section 8]
2. If it infringes copyright of any person other than the State. [Section 9]
The Central Information Commission was constituted by the Central Government on Thursday, the 13th October, 2005, which includes one Chief Information Commissioner (CIC) and four Information Commissioner (IC). The Commission has its headquarters in Delhi. Other offices may be established in other parts of the country with the approval of the Central Government. The Commission will exercise its power without being subjected to directions by any other authority. The address of the Commission is :
Old JNU Campus, Block IV, 5th Floor, New Delhi – 110067. Shri Wajahat Habibulla is the Chief Information Officer (Tel. 26717355).
The State Information Commission has been constituted in different states by the respected State Governments. It has one State Chief Information Commissioner (SCIC) and not more than ten State Information Commissioners (SIC). The Commission will exercise its power without being subjected to any other authority.
What are the powers and functions of Information Commissions?
1. The Central Information Commission/State Information Commission has a duty to receive complaints from any person
a) who has not been able to submit an information request because a PIO has not been appointed;
b) who has been refused information that was requested;
c) who has received no response to his/her information request within the specified time limits;
d) who thinks the fees charged are unreasonable;
e) who thinks information given is incomplete or false or misleading ;and
f) any other matter relating to obtaining information under this law.
2. Power to order inquiry if there are reasonable grounds.
3. CIC/SCIC will have powers of Civil Court such as
a) summoning and enforcing attendance of persons, compelling them to give oral or written evidence on oath and to produce documents or things;
b) requiring the discovery and inspection of documents;
c) receiving evidence on affidavit;
d) requisitioning public records or copies from any court or office
e) issuing summons for examination of witnesses or documents
f) any other matter which may be prescribed.
4. All records covered by this law (including those covered by exemptions) must be given to CIC/SCIC during inquiry for examination.
5. Power to secure compliance of its decisions from the Public Authority includes
a) providing access to information in a particular form;
b) directing the public authority to appoint a PIO/APIO where none exists;
c) publishing information or categories of information;
d) making necessary changes to the practices relating to management, maintenance and destruction of records;
e) enhancing training provision for officials on RTI;
f) seeking an annual report from the public authority on compliance with this law;
g) require it to compensate for any loss or other detriment suffered by the applicant;
h) impose penalties under this law; or
i) reject the application.
Who are the Appellate Authorities?
1. First Appeal: First appeal to the officer senior in rank to the Pia in the concerned Public Authority within 30 days from the expiry of the prescribed time limit or from the receipt of the decision (delay may be condoned by the Appellate Authority if sufficient cause is shown).
2. Second Appeal: Second appeal to the Central Information Commission or the State Information Commission as the case may be, within 90 days of the date on which the decision was given or should have been made by the First Appellate Authority. (delay may be condoned by the Commission if sufficient cause is shown).
What are the penalty provisions?
Every PIO will be liable for fine of Rs. 250 per day, up to a maximum of Rs. 25,000/-, for
i) not accepting an application;
ii) delaying information release without reasonable cause;
iii) malafidely denying information;
iv) knowingly giving incomplete, incorrect, misleading information;
v) destroying information that has been requested and
vi) obstructing furnishing of information in any manner.
The Information Commission (IC) at the Centre and the State levels will have the power to impose this penalty. The Information Commission can also recommend disciplinary action for violation of the law against an erring PIO.
What is the jurisdiction of courts?
Lower Courts are barred from entertaining suits or applications against any order made under this Act. However, the writ jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and High Courts under Articles 32 and 225 of the Constitution remains unaffected.
FORMAT OF APPLICATION FOR SEEKING INFORMATION
UNDER THE RIGHT TO INFORMATION ACT-2005
Application ID No. : IITR/MS/RTI-
(For official use)
The Public Information Officer / Asstt. Public Information Officer / The Central Public Officer
1. Name of the Applicant: __________________________________________________________
2. Address _______________________________________________________________________
3. Particulars of information
(a) Concerned Office / Department : _______________________________________________
(b) Particulars of information required ______________________________________________
(i) Details of information required (specific points) _________________________________
(ii) Period for which information asked for: _______________________________________
(iii) Other details ____________________________________________________________
4. Format in which information is required:
5. Mode of delivery expected (ordinary post, speed post, by courier, by hand, through internet or e-mail, by fax etc.). Additional fee may be charged to cover the cost of delivery.
6. The information can be furnished within 30 days as prescribed under Section 6 (1)/ the information sought for concerns my life and liberty, therefore the information may be furnished to me within 48 hours (Please delete the inapplicable portion).
7. Without prejudice to my rights under the RTI Act 2005, to facilitate faster retrieval of information, I would like to state that the information could be available in ………………………………… (please indicate the name of concerned Office/Department of the Institute).
8. I state that the information sought does not fall within the restrictions contained in section 8 and 9 of the Act and to the best of my knowledge it pertains to your office.
9. This is to certify that I, ………………………………….. son / daughter / wife of ………………………, am a citizen of India and I am eligible to seek information under the Right to Information Act 2005.
10 (i) A fee of Rs. ________________________ has been deposited in the Finance & Accounts Office of the Institute vide Receipt No. _______________ dated _______________, (enclose in original), or
(ii) A Postal Order/Bank Draft No. _______________________ dated__________________ is enclosed, or
(iii) The applicant is not liable to pay any fee because he/she is below the poverty line (proof is attached).
(Please tick on of the above and delete the remaining two options)
(Name & Signature)
Postal Address: _______________________
E-mail address: ______________________
Tel No. _____________________________
Note : (i) Reasonable assistance can be provided by the Information Officer.
(ii) Please ensure that the application form is complete in all respect and there is no ambiguity in providing the details of information required.
(iii) Brief title of the information sought should not exceed one time.
(iv) When addressing to the Central Information Officer, fee in the form of Bank Drafts, Pay Orders, Indian Postal Orders drawn in the name of Under Secretary (Cash), Department of Commerce and payable at New Delhi, should be enclosed with application. The fee in cash can also be deposited with the Cashier in Cashier, Department of Commerce (Room No: 29A, Udyog Bhavan). Original Receipt of cash deposit fee should be submitted along with the application.
(v) Accordingly, under the provision of this Act, Department of Commerce, its Attached and subordinate offices, Autonomous Bodies, PSUs working under it and substantially funded Institutions have been declared as separate Public Authorities. All these Public Authorities have since appointed their CPIOs/ACPIOs/Officer senior to the CPIOs in their respective Organizations, a complete list of which is available on the website of the Department of Commerce and of the respective Public Authorities as laid down under Section 4.1(b) of the Act.
Appeal under Section 19(1) of the Right to Information Act, 2005
The Officer Senior to Central Public Information Officer
Co-ordinating Central Public Information Officer>
1. Name of the appellant :
2. Address :
3. I.D. No. :
4. Reasons for appeal * :
Signature of the Appellant
E-mail address, if any _________________________
Tel. No.(Office) ______________________________
Postal Address _______________________________
· Reasons for appeal should be given specifically for the particular information sought.
Lecturer, Deptt. of History
India and the United states are ten thousand miles from each other.Both the countries, have different geographical settings, races, cultures and habits. But similar factors like belief in democracy, liberty and racial equality bring these two largest democracies together. The history of Indo-Unites States relations began much before the second World War. No Indian can forget the days of our struggle for freedom during which we received the support and sympathy of the United States and in the 1940s the American Government exerted pressure on Britain to grant independence to India. After India getting her independence, Nehru followed the policy of non-alignment keeping India away from power blocs, which in turn earned Washington’s displeasure. Nehru was critical of American action in Korea, Cuba and in other global flash points during that time. Surprisingly, he was less critical of Soviet policy. Despite American caution, he moved closer to China. This created doubts in the minds of American leadership, about the genuineness of Nehru's non-alignment policy. Despite these apparent disagreements, there was an undercurrent of co-operation between the two largest democracies.
There were notable developments in the field of scientific and technological co-operation, including the nuclear field. Several industrial units were established in India with American technical know-how. The United States built the Tarapur nuclear power plant and also agreed to supply enriched uranium for fifteen years. There were notable co-operations in other areas as well like food, aid, cultural exchange etc.
Even though India alleged that Washington had a leaning towards Pakistan in Indo-Pakistan conflicts, Washington held that America treated both the countries in an equal manner. Thus, the Indo-American relations during the Nehru era and in the immediate aftermath of his death demonstrated the dual features of conflict and co-operation, faith, and distrust.
Areas of Co-operation
The most important areas of consensus between India and United States were in the economic field. The food assistance provided by the US to India during the food crisis of 1950 was crucial. In the initial stages America's economic interest towards India was marginal and played a very small role in building friendship between the two countries. The emergence of Communist China and India's non-aligned concept and other factors influenced American aid policy towards the initial stages of its first five year plan basically designed for planed economic development of the country. Due to worst food stocks shortage, India's economy was seriously affected, so to meet the needs of India the United States granted a loan of $ 189.7 million for purchasing two million tons of wheat in 1951. In December 1951, Chester Bowels signed an agreement with Nehru on development assistance. The US granted an aid of $ 54,000,0001 to win friends in India.
These tactics were used to bring India in line with the United States in respect of international issues. The US economic assistance to India was interpreted as a humanitarian gesture, an effort in the promotion of democracy and a means of winning friends. Public law 480 (food, for peace) programme enacted in 1954 played an important role in fighting food shortage and inflation in India. During second five year plan, Senator Kennedy pleaded for US aid to India's economic development. In the closing years of Eisenhower's administration, India's economic development made rapid progress due to adequate and timely aid given in the form of loans and grants. By this economic assistance the US and India came closer to each other.
In the area of technical co-operation, there were four General Agreements between India and United States, signed at New Delhi on 28th December 1950. The idea of this programme was drawn by President Truman in his address on January, 1949, in which he stated that, "we must embark on a bold new programme for making the benefits of our scientific advances and industrial progress available for the improvement and growth of under developed area. I believe that we should make available to peace-loving people the benefits of our store of technical knowledge in order to help them realize their asperations for a better life"3.
It is true that America provided technical know-how massionary to India to help Industrial and economic developments of the country but in respect of transfer advanced technology to India America followed a very cautious policy. Only limited and strictly controlled technology was transfered to India. But American help was refused when India embarked upon building heavy industry under public sector. American technology was not available for the steel plants which India built for her industrial development. Advanced technology for these plants came from Soviet Union and other Western Countries.
The funds released by the United States helped India's massive programmes like eradicating malaria and to launch the community development programmes. Under these programmes the United States had loaned Rs. 1,200 crore ($2.5 billion) worth of capital goods and technical assistance to India.
The Government of India made a request to America for the sale of certain military equipments. Eventually, an agreement was signed relating to mutual defence assistance between United States and India on the 7th and 6th March, 19514 based on the Govt. of America's belief that the Govt. of India would use that equipment's for promoting international peace and security under framework of un charter.
During the early 1960's the Indo-United States rapprochement grew strong as a result of growing tension in Sino-Indian ties and because of continuing hostility between the United States and Red China. Here India and the United States found a common cause. Paradoxically the Sino-Indian border war of 1962 provided a golden opportunity to the United States to co-operate with India on security matter. A high level co-operation between India and United States marked this period5. B.K. Nehru was the Ambassador of India during the 1962 incident India sought assistance from United States for the purpose of defending India against the Chinese aggression for which the former responded favorably. In truth, United States aid worth $ 120 million was immediately sent, while aid worth $ 100 million was pledged for five years.
The growing friendly relations between India and America was disliked by the Pakistan government which threatened to quit CENTO and SEATO. In spite of that Kennedy administration extended its help to India. And India also received an economic assistance worth $ 2.5 billion for non-military capital goods and for technical assistance. The climate in Indian political cricles-from the top to bottom were most favorable to the Americans to start a new chapter in India-United States relations. The Chinese aggression provided a silver lining between India and United States, which helped to strengthen a long-term co-operation between the two countries.
Indo-US co-operation in nuclear field also began in the 1950’s. In 1956 the UnitedState provided "heavy water" for India's civil nuclear programmer. During 1963 India and United States signed a nuclear co-operation agreement, whose validity was for thirty years. Under this agreement, the two countries agreed to co-operate in the construction and cooperation of a civil atomic power station at Tarapur (Maharashtra). The United States also agreed to sell India the enriched uranium for Tarapur power station, up to required quantity6.
Areas of conforntation
Sharp difference on certain issues prevailed during the cold war period between India and the United States, especially during Nehru era. These differences sprang from factors like historical experience, cultural ideologies and resources, geographical needs, outlooks etc. To some extent these factors conditioned the relationship between these two countries.
High hopes were raised for amicable and coustruction relations between independent India and America soon after India got independence. But these hopes were not realized because America sympathized with Pakistan when Pakistan invaded Kashmir in 1948. This was the first manifestation of Indo-American difference. This difference was further accentuated when the United States of America along with other members of Western blocs adopted an anti-India attitude in the Security Council where India had taken the Kashmir issues in January, 1948.
Anti-communism and anti-Soviet policy were the two important features of American foreign policy. America wanted to include India in its project of containment of Soviet Union but India rejected this feeler. The Indian government decided to keep aloof from military groups and maintain a non-aligned stand on important international issues. Naturally America moved towards Pakistan and drew Pakistan into central treaty organisation (CENTO) which included Iraq, Iran and Turkey all of which shared their borders with Soviet Union. The UnitedState supplied arms to Pakistan to keep it intact, but that affected India's security, economy and social harmony. Though the United States repeatedly assured that the arms supplied to Pakistan would not be used against India, these arms were in fact used against India. The arms supply really created a nonconducive environment and came as blockade is the process of enhancing relationship between India and United States.
Another factor which affected amicable relations between the two countries was India's open support for permanent membership in the security council for China. The opposite stands taken by India and the United States on the Korean issue also created pressure in the relationship between the two countries. When United States extended military support to South Korea which was attached by North Korea India did not approved of the American action this also caused strained between their mutual relations.
America believed that India had obvious leanings towards communist ideology which was not a fact, but India failed to remove American doubts about it and this doubt remained a persistent factor in American Policy towards India.
Under the leadership of Jawahar LaL Nehru India had joined the non-aligned movement and India's commitment to non-alignment was genuine Nehru Stated, "the only way to preserve our identity was to avoid excessive intimacy and identification with either commission for capitalist blocs. India continued to maintain its non-aligned stand in spite of moral land economic templations, and security umbrella offered by both sides to India to their side. The decision of India to remain non-aligned created frustration and anger to United States. John Foster Dulles denounced, non-alignment as immoral which was strongly disliked by India. The vigrous attempts made by the United States to draw India into its fold proved unsuccessful. But the pursuit of non-aligned foreign policy of the country remained under tremendous stress and strains.
Though it is true that India and United States had a good co-operation on several areas, the areas of confrontation were more and intense in nature. The main issues of confrontation between the two were with regards to the foreign policy objectives of both the countries. On the other hand United States was building up alliances to counter the alleged soviet treat, while on the other hand India refused to accept American policy of alignment. This made the positions of India and United States unbridgeable and served as stumbling block in the process of enhancing the Indo-United States relationship during Nehru Era.
1. Chester Bowels, "America and Russia in Indian Foreign Affairs" America Quarterly Review, 1971, July, P638.
2. A. Appadorai, selected documents on India's foreign policy and relations: 1947-1972,OUP, 1985 VoI.2 PP-72-73.
5. Jawaharlal Nehru, India's foreign policy selected speeches. Sep. 1946 April 1961, Govt. of India, Delhi 1961, P 305.
6. Agreement of co-operation between the govt. of the United States of America and the govt., of India concerning the civil uses odd atomic energy, US treaties and other international agreements, government printing office Washington vol. 14 part 2, 1964 PP. 148-91.
-Dr. Preeti Shukla
Lecturer, Deptt. of English
In simple terms feminism is a belief in the social, political & economic equality of both sexes, which simply holds the 'view that" Yes, women are people", which is, I think, not an 'anti male prejudice'.
There are no essential differences between the sexes, and that the roles observed in society are due to conditioning.
Feminist do not speak of/for traditional women. Feminism is a social theory and political movement, primarily informed & motivated by the experience of women, it provides a critique of gender inequality and promotes women' rights, interests and issues.
Feminist theories aim at understanding the nature of inequality and focus on gender politics, power relations and sexuality feminist movement crosses boundaries like class and race.
Feminism is generally said to have begun in the 19th century as people increasingly adopted the perception that women are oppressed in a malecentered society. The organized movement is dated from the first women's rights convention at Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848. Over a century and a half the movement has grown to include diverse perspectives on what constitutes discrimination against women.
Early feminists and primary feminist movements were for the political, social and educational equality of women with men. The movement has occurred mainly in Great Britain and the United States, issues ranging from access to employment, education, child care, contraception, abortion to equality in the workplace, changing family roles, redress for sexual harassment in the workplace and the need for equal political representation.
Women traditionally have been regarded as inferior to men physically and intellectually. Both law and theology had ordered their subjection. Women could not posses property in their -own names, engage in business etc. Then this Women' Rights Convention at Seneca Falls in 1848 issued a declaration of independence for women, demanding full educational and commercial opportunity, equal compensation, the right to collect wages and the right to vote.
Feminism: Its development in India
One of the most enduring clichés about India is that it is a country of contradictions. At the heart of contradiction stand Indian women. For it is true to say that they are among the most oppressed in the world, and it is equally true to say that they are among the most liberated, the most articulate and perhaps even the most free. Fifty years ago when India became independent, it was wisely acknowledged that the battle for freedom had been fought as much by woman as by man.
The betterment of the condition of women' lives were initially taken up by men. The independence brought many promises and dreams for women in Indiadream of a just democratic society in which both men & women both have a voice. But reality began to sink, despite some reforms in conditions, patriarchy had simply taken on new and different forms.
It was then these women' organizations were set up and then women took part in movements such as campaigns against rising prices, movement for land rights, peasant movements. Most importantly violence against women in the form of rape, dowry deaths was the issue which is fought till date and a Domestic Violence Bill very lately in 21st century, has been passed by the Indian Parliament. It is not enough to know or to believe that domestic violence is a crime; that to use his male privilege to enforce his opinion on women in the family is harassment. Self- Help has to be a strategy for development of women in society. The fact of the matter is that they be treated fairly; purely on the basis of merit and with no negative or positive gender specific bias.
Dr. Manmohan Singh, while releasing the special editions of two of Premchand's novels Sevasadan in Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi) and Rangbhumi (Hindi and Urdu) published by National Book Trust, India at a function organized at PM's residence underlined Premchand's contributions as "One of the great feminists of Modern India who argued for restoring the rights of women." So, if feminism is to be understood in its exact terms; in conceptual and theoretical terms. Because of false propaganda feminism is labeled as anti male, family destroying, culture killing; which is not true.
Broadly speaking feminism worked up as today is "an awareness of woman's oppression and exploitation in Society, at work and within the family and conscious action by women and men to change the situation."
Anyone who recognizes the existence of Sexism (discrimination on the basis of gender) male domination and patriarchy and challenges it, is a Feminist in my opinion.
Hence Feminism should be understood beyond Gender Reservation.
She lay listless beside him. There was not a sign of the stormy night before when she hung on to him. He had asked her again and again to lie down and go to sleep but she wouldn't. Or probably couldn't. He pleaded with her since he too was exhausted having spent so many nights waking up intermittently just to see that she was breathing. It was tough after a hard day's work and when she shook her head in refusal, he lost his cool. She was hanging on to him like an infant, powerless and needing support when the head rolls forward or back and you hold it in the cup of your hand and make it rest against your shoulder. "How long can it go on?" He asked in desperation, "How long can I stand up like this?" There was no answer but he piled up cushions to make a reclining bed and made her lie against it. Resigned to her fate, she looked blankly at the ceiling while he pushed himself out of her way so that she could move her hand to the cordless bell. That's if she wanted to. She needed to ring the bell if she needed help in the middle of the night.
That's the way it had been going on for weeks or months or God alone knew how long. It seemed like eternity. He had often wondered why God did this to him. What was his fault? What had he done to deserve this- an ailing wife with no hope of recovering? In saner moments, he realized that her suffering was no less as she struggled speechlessly with a body that was gradually withering while her mind was in fine shape. "Give me four sleeping pills and when I doze off, switch this damn thing off, she pleaded with him pointing to the artificial life support on which her life was dependent. He was aghast at the suggestion as he read the note scribbled on a slate with weak fingers. "How can I do it? Don't ask me again", he mumbled as he erased the fatal suggestion. "Only God can take way someone's life. And why should I lose you? You are at least here and I can see you and feel your company!' He tried to sound reassuring but instinctively knew it sounded hollow.
Had God finally dealt the fatal blow? The bell did not ring. As he woke up in the early hours to take another look at her, he found her staring blankly at the ceiling yet again. He raised himself on his elbows to get a better look. Was her chest heaving? Was she alive? He called her out. There was no sign of movement. He jumped up forgetting all the fatigue he had felt a few hours ago and touched her forehead. It was warm. He raised her arm but it fell as soon as he let it go. He pressed his ear to where her heart should have been. Not a sound! Had the moment he first dreaded and later longed finally come? He shivered with guilt at the thought and asked her doctor to rush. What did he want to be told? That she is gone or is still around! He wasn't sure and just stood there with his hands in his back pockets, beads of perspiration on his forehead and anxiety gripping him all over.
Weren't there times when he had been forced to pray for it all to end? And every time he folded his hands to seek divine forgiveness for her and pleaded with all the gods he had heard of to spare her more suffering, he found it revolting the next moment. "How can you ask for it? You, of all the people? You who fell for her dark, big eyes whose depth like the big seas none could fathom; her hair, which fell as waters do, gushing down the icy mountains in a wave and carrying everything that comes in its way to distant lands; her mind that far exceeded the limits of intellect his own possessed and made her the cynosure of attention wherever she went. In fact, he grudgingly learnt to concede that she in her own strange way, made him complete. She did things he was uncomfortable with ease. With a zest for life and manner of gay abandon, she made an impact few could match. She became his prized possession till disease got the better of her.
He wiped the sweat off his forehead and felt very guilty. He shouldn't have scolded her. He had no right to be harsh with her knowing fully well that she was suffering far more than he was or ever had in his life. But what could he do? How long can one take it? He could be patient but for how long? Who could do it for eternity?
The door bell rang. He mechanically led the doctor to the bed. As the stethoscope came out, he went out expecting to be told the worst. He began to rehearse in mind how he would react to the inevitable. What is expected of someone in such a situation? Is a man supposed to cry or collapse or faint? That sounded unmanly. He peeped in and saw the doctor feverishly thumping her chest. He tried to compose himself. All that he wanted and feared at the same time was about to come true. Strangely he wasn't sure he wanted her to go and leave him all alone. As the reality of what lay before him began to sink in, he prayed, 'God! Please spare her life!"
The doctor stepped out of the room and shook hands with him. "She is fine", he declared, "and you can go in". He felt weak in the knees and tears he had been holding back began to flow freely.
Year B.A. (P), IInd
Few days ago I was chatting with a girl on internet, she was from Nigeria. When I gave her the location of my country, her reply was just a line – "Incredible place and peoples".
Her reply was enough for me to be curious about her (basically I am very curious by nature). So I asked her, what exactly she meant by her compliment?
She replied that, she was doing her master’s degree in ‘International Human Behaviour’, and the topic which she liked most and she is planning to do a research on is – ‘Indian society and its behaviour’. She went on to add that India is incredible because of its culture, which is very different, mixed and yet very rich and secular. She liked both the diversity and the individuality of Indian people. But she was more interested about the way Indian people sympathize about something. That was something new and exciting for me to know about my country & society from the mind of a foreigner.
So, I asked her if she was interested in telling me some observations about India. She added that on an average Indians are very kind at heart and they are very sensitive, emotional and sympathetic compared to their counterparts in other parts of the world. It’s not a newly acquired habit for them because we can see ample examples from past history. She was excited by the Indian culture and was eager to come to India to feel it and know more about it. After that we chatted on other topics and exchanged our address and phone numbers and after some time I signed out from the chat room.
Now I am thinking that, whether the real India is like what she read in books and on internet? Is her concept about India true or is it just a perception that we are presenting to the world? Are we really sympathetic and kind enough to be proud? Are we kind for the right reasons or we are just prevented to be kind? If it is right to have sympathy for a person whose father/parents had died, were great personalities? So, elect them as our representatives (because their predecessors were) or give pardon to the guilty (because in he/she in the past has done some social work). Is it justified? Is any one out there, to pull me out of this dilemma?
Don’t you people think now it’s the time to grow up and be more humane and rational instead of being just a mear spectator and a sympathetic fool (as I think!).
B.A. (H) Pol. Sc., IIIrd Year
A democratic country is known by the rights it grants to its citizens. Rights are safeguards of democracy. If a country does not provide rights to the citizens, we cannot call it a democratic country. Democracy means a government of the people, for the people and by the people. Without rights a person can not develop his personality, so rights are essential for the physical, mental and moral development of an individual.
According to Laki – "Rights are of those conditions without which no man can seek himself at his best."
Our Indian constitution consists of six rights which are called ‘Fundemantal Rights’. These rights are :-
I) Right to equality is in the constitution from article 14 to 18.
II) Right to freedom is from article 19 to 22.
III) Right against exploitation is from article 23 & 24.
IV) Right to freedom of religion is from article 25 to 28.
V) Cultural & educational rights are in article 29 & 30.
VI) Right to constitutional remedies is in article 32.
I need not explain these rights in detail as these are the possession of every citizen of India and they must be knowing about them. They are the soul of the constitution and everybody must enjoy these rights.
Right to Equality : It means everyone is equal before law. Law does not discriminate between an officer and worker, between rich and poor. Public places are open to all. Equal opportunities to earn livelihood are given to all. But in practical life, everyone is not equal before law. Law favours the rich. If a poor person is a culprit, he will be punished, if a rich person commits the same crime, he will be saved. How can we say that law treats everyone equal?
Right to Freedom : It means everyone is free to speak, to walk, to reside, to form associations and practice any profession. But in real life one cannot speak against the government. He cannot point out the drawbacks of the government. If the government suspects a person, it can arrest him under the preventive detention act under such circumstances, how can an individual enjoy his right to freedom?
Right Against Exploitation : It means that human beings can not be sold or purchased like vegetables and children below 14 years will not be allowed to work in factories and mines. But in India sale and purchase of human beings are in practice and children below 14 years are working in factories and in mines to earn bread. I think this right is an ornament to the constitution and nothing else.
Right to Freedom of Religion : It gives freedom of religion to the Indians. They are free to worship God in any form. But in actual life religion and caste are mingled and both are dominating Indian politics. Every political leader takes shelter of religion and caste to win the election and converts national feelings into communal feelings. Such feelings are a danger to the development of national integration and unity. Common people are coming in the grip of communalism and going away from nationalism.
Cultural & Educational Rights : These rights encourage communal feelings also which are harmful for the progress of India. Institutions named on language and religion are also increasing communal feelings.
Right To Constitutional Remedies : It gives everyone right to knock at the door of Supreme Court if someone snatches his rights. But in fact a poor person cannot go to court because of lack of wealth. Only rich people can enjoy this right.
In India, economic rights are not given to the citizens. They have the right to vote. They can fight election. When they have no bread how can they fight election? A hungry person cannot realize the importance of these rights. He can vote for a wrong person who is assisting him financially. A poor person cannot satisfy his hunger with the right to vote. He needs bread. He can earn bread with the help of economic rights which are not in our constitution.
I think education is the only means to educate and awaken the people about their rights. An educated person can understand the utility of these rights. He can be above communal, regional, linguistic feelings and can create a national feeling among the common people.
Without right a citizen cannot enjoy full freedom. Unless a citizen is free, he cannot work sincerely. So rights are the fundamental base of democracy. Democracy is the best form of government because it provides various types of rights to its citizens.
B.A. (H) Eco, Ist Year
I love nature
Do you know why?
It has beautiful birds which fly
It has lovely streams
Which shine very high
It has green plants, colourful butterflies
Which fill my heart with joy
You know what it says to all
Protect me, protect me ,So let us all try.
Reader, Deptt. of English (Retd.)
Sri. Aurobindo says: "All wealth belongs to God and those who hold it are trustees." Roman Rolland opines - "This thing must be put bluntly, every man who has more than necessary for his livelihood is a thief."
Albert Einstein puts it more mildly, "It is everyman's obligation to put back into the world at least the equivalent of what he takes out of it."
All of us have been born on this earth with a particular object, with a definite purpose to serve humanity. We are here with a sublime mission to make this world more beautiful, to make it a better place to live in, to serve fellow human beings.
Someone has said: "We are here for the sake of other men". No life is really happy until it is helpful. He indeed gets the most out of life who does' most to elevate mankind.
Nothing really belongs to us. Whatever that comes to our possession is only in the capacity of a trustee. Andrew Carnegie believed that the rich had a moral obligation to give away their fortunes for the common good of all. He asserted that all personal wealth beyond a family's needs should be regarded as a trust for the benefit of the community.
In the words of Phillips Brooks, " No man has come to true greatness .who has not felt in some degree that his life belongs to his race and that what God gives him, He gives him for mankind.". And Voltaire says: I know of no great men except those who have rendered great services to the human race.
The central problem facing the world today is how to satisfy our ever-increasing wants and needs. Gandhi believed in the doctrine of non-possession i.e. voluntary dispossession of wealth and worldly goods beyond basic and daily needs. He once said: "We have enough to satisfy man's needs but not enough to satisfy man's greed." He would say: "It is sinful to multiply one's wants unnecessarily."
Orison Swett Marden opines: "No one will live long in the, world's memory, who has not done something besides' selfishly grasping and hoarding wealth or working within the narrow sphere of personal interests and ambitions."
Money itself has very little to do with happiness. Some of the most wretched men in the world have been very rich. They could have everything that money could buy, their money didn't bring them happiness. It didn't bring contentment or harmony into their homes.
The world never honour greed and selfishness. It cherishes the memory of those who have illustrated in their lives the final human values. The man who lives for self alone, whose life is not of value to the whole community, is a colossal failure.
Men may make millions and still be utter failures. Making of a life is more important than making a living. The rich have no business to indulge in vulgar display of wealth when the poor lack such basic necessities as drinking water. To quote Orison Swett Marden: "A large part of the immorality and crime in the world is due to the influence of the ostentation of flaunting of wealth in the face of those who are less favoured. It is a powerful undermining force in our civilization. No rich person has a right to set an example which will demoralize others. Our rights to extravagance cease when they injure others."
The Holy Vedas Say: "The Lord does not favour the rich who refuse to share their wealth with the needy and the poor. The rich man who does not utilize his wealth for noble deeds or does not offer it for the use of his fellow-beings, but looks after his own needs, is selfish and has earned the wages of sin. Hoarded wealth eventually proves to be the cause of his ruin.
B. Com. (P), IIIrd Year
‘Dream’ is a passion of life,
It makes you live, it makes u die,
A shooter view nothing to aim at,
A man without ‘dream’ is like that,
‘Dreams’ are the strongest imagination,
Perceived by the minds of humans,
Dream is a blue print of your success story,
If urge is there you can repeat the history,
Dream is a reflection of your personality,
So move ahead and turn it into a
B. A. (H), IIIrd Year
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is one of the latest medical tragedies that have become the dominant public health concern. It was not known before 1981 and even now there is a lot about it that we do not know. It is not a disease in itself. It s a condition caused by a virus known as Human Immuno Deficiency virus (HIV). It is a unique virus, which causes impairment to the immune system in the human body. If the human body is infected by other viruses, the medicine can destroy them but is not in case of HIV viruses. When HIV virus enters the human body it attaches itself to the genetic material of the human cell and infects the cell. It is because of this feature of HIV that it cannot be destroyed by any medicine without destroying the cell itself.
Human body is infected with HIV in three ways. The most common route of HIV transmission is sexual relation with an infected person. It can also be transmitted through infusion of blood or blood products that are already infected with HIV. It can also be transmitted by HIV infected mother to the new born child before, during and after birth. Once the person is infected, he or she will have AIDS and will die of any illness. The eventually fall prey to any disease.
AIDS has no cure and there is no vaccine that can prevent HIV infection. That is why AIDS is a matter of great concern. The only way to be away from AIDS and to prevent HIV transmission is the "safe behaviour" of the human beings. It is also essential to ensure that the blood transfusion takes place only after it is HIV tested. Whenever one takes injection, the syringe and the needle must be sterilized or it should be a disposable syringe. This kind of care must also be taken in activities like tattooing and ear piercing.
It is a sacred duty of everyone to take care of those who are HIV infected. It must be noted that HIV is not transmitted by shaking hands or embracing an infected person. It does not spread by sharing cups, plates or by sharing work instruments, swimming or playing or by donating blood.
"Arise awake and stop not till the goal is achieved".
—Ajay Kumar Majhi
B. A. (Prog), IInd Year
When the constitution of India was drafted, the framers made provision for reservation for the downtrodden section of the society. Initially it was for ten years. Then subsequently this provision has been expanded since last year. The reason might be fulfillment of the objective of the reservation or it may be political gain. The general perception regarding extension of reservation may be political consideration but the social aspects should not be ignored. The recent United Progressive Alliance (UPA) Govt. decision to give reservation to other backward castes in the higher educational institutions gave rise to mass demonstrations on the issue. The question whether reservation is a panacea for social equality or not is the matter of discussion. The so called front runner mass are of the opinion that reservation is only dividing the society on the basis of caste. For social equality there should not be reservation. No doubt reservation in there present context is viewed below par excellence. But it is not universally true. There are certain sections of the society still facing discrimination and exploitation from other sections. That needs to be cured. In my opinion of several solutions, reservation is the only way to get early results, though the effectiveness of this reservation policy depends on the will and wishes of the administration. No doubt reservation creates differences among different sections of the society, the forward class should have patience to accept the so called discrimination for the greater cause of the country in the long run. Simultaneously merit should not be ignored. Govt. should make provision so that the meritorious candidates should not suffer because of giving opportunity to others. So in my opinion through reservation created differences on the society in the name of caste, people should have shown patience for greater national interest. One can't say the 60 years of reservation has been fruitless. Though the result is not excellent it is satisfactory because of this benefits the downtrodden section coming to the limelight presently. So it is wrong to say reservation on the basis of caste only divide the society without any positive result.
Some of the academician and upper caste people required the reservation, if any, should, be on the basis economic condition. But this may not be effective in comparison to caste based reservation because of mass corruption and inefficient govt. administration.
In this context I will like to cite the example of below poverty line (BPL) card holder in one of the districts of Orissa I belong to. Most of the (BPL) card holders are the economically sound families rather than the poor families. It is due to corruption and access to administration of these people. So my point is if reservation is on the basis of economic condition, the real beneficiaries will be economically sound people rather than poor because of above cited reasons.
No doubt, the creamy layer amongst the caste gets the benefits of caste based reservation. It can be wiped out by depriving the creamy layer from the reservation benefits. So in my opinion caste based reservation is a more effective way to achieve the greater objective of social equality rather than economic criteria.
. Com (H), Ist Year
(A candidate named Mohan goes to an officer for an interview. The candidate enters the room. He finds the officer sitting there.)
Candidate : May I come in sir?
Officer : Yes, come in.
Candidate : Good morning sir.
Officer : Good morning, what is your name?
Candidate : Sir, the name is already given in the application.
Officer : But, I want to know it from you.
Candidate : Sir, my mother calls me ‘Bhola’, my father calls me ‘Shola’. In the application form, my name is ‘Sohan’. But my real name is ‘Mohan’.
Officer : What does you father do?
Candidate : Sir, my father is I.C.S. in summer and P.C.S. in winter.
Officer : What do you mean by I.C.S. and P.C.S.?
Candidate : I.C.S stands for Ice Cream Seller and P.C.S. stands for Potato Chips Seller.
Officer : Where is your house?
Candidate : Sir my house is near a ‘Neem’ tree.
Officer : Where is the ‘Neem’ tree?
Candidate : The ‘Neem’ tree is near my house.
Officer : What are your qualifications?
Candidate : Sir my qualification is M.A.B.F.
Officer : What do you mean by M.A.B.F.?
Candidate : Sir, M.A.B.F. stands for Matric Appeared But Failed.
B. Com (H), Ist Year
Here is a collection of some coincidences of life and death of two great leaders.
Lincoln and Kennedy
(a) Lincoln was elected President in 1860 and Kennedy in 1960.
(b) Lincoln’s secretary’s name was Kennedy and Kennedy’s secretary’s name was Lincoln.
(c) Both secretaries had advised the Presidents not to go to the theatres.
(d) Both Presidents died on Friday. Both of them received head injuries and died in the presence of their wives.
(e) John Wilks Booth shot Lincoln from the theatre and ran to the warehouse. Lee Harry Oswald shot Kennedy from the warehouse and ran to the theatre.
(f) John Wilks Booth was born in 1839 while Oswald was born in 1939.
(g) The names John Wilks Booth and Lee Harry Oswald have 14 letters each.
(h) The successor of Lincoln was Andrew Johnson and that of Kennedy was Lyndon Johnson.
(i) Both names Andrew Johnson and Lyndon Johnson have 13 letters each.
(j) Andrew Johnson was born in 1808 while Lyndon was born in 1908.
Pt. J.L. Nehru and Indira Gandhi
(a) Both were born in November, father on 14th November & daughter on 19th November.
(b) Both were Prime Minister when they died.
(c) Both died in a leap year. The former in 1964 & the later in 1984.
(d) Both died in the last weak of the month.
(e) Both died on Wednesday and were cremated on Saturday.
(f) Both were cremated in the same area i.e. the bank of the river Yamuna.
(g) Both were left only with one heir, who later on became the Prime Minister.
(h) Both died in the same city (New Delhi) after they returned from the same city i.e. Bhubaneswar.
B.A. (Prog), IInd Year
The source of love is GOD
The centre of love is SACRIFICE
The genesis of love is FAITH
The power of love is TRUST
The seed of love is SINCERITY
The harvest of love is HAPPINESS
The nature of love is TRUST
The pulse of love is CONCERN
The essence of love is GENEROSITY
The secret of love is FRIENDSHIP
To be loved by lovable.
B.Com. (P), IIIrd Year
If a barber makes a mistake,
It’s a new hairstyle.
If a tailor makes a mistake,
It’s a new fashion.
If a scientist makes a mistake,
It’s an invention.
If an engineer makes a mistake,
It’s a new design.
If a politician makes a mistake,
It’s a new law.
If a driver makes a mistake,
It’s a new skill of driving.
If a teacher makes a mistake,
It’s a new subject.
But if we, children make a mistake,
Why it remains only a mistake???
Old Man’s Song
B.Com. (P), IIIrd Year
Catch em alive! Gentemen I ‘ve
Here such a dose as no fly can survive,
House–fly, blue bottle,
Garden–fly, nothing can
Save him when once he’s got this in his throttle?
Let e'en a wasp dip his nose in the mixture,
Spread on a plate, and that wasp is a fixture
Buy, Buy, give it a try,
Don’t be put down by a poor little fly.
Who ‘ll purchase any? Only a penny kills them all, if it’s ever so many.
B.Com. (P), IIIrd Year
Cricket is fun, especially when
Tendulkar is making runs
Or when Bhaji is getting wickets
When Inzmam gets out on a zero
And Ganguly is made a hero
When Shoib Akhtar is in a fix
And Dhoni strikes a six
When Dravid hits a foul
And Afridi can't do any more
When Dravid is getting a cup
And Sami gets a duck
So in short, cricket is fun
But only when India has won.
What Is Friendship?
B.A. (Prog), IInd Year
Physicist – Friendship may be defined as the branch of physics which deals with the force of attraction between two persons with similar tastes.
Economist – A friend cannot be bought, in fact money can buy anything from the work of art, but all the money in the world can't buy a good friend’s heart.
Biologist – It is a disease! It is transmitted through contact. The symptoms are glad heart, a cheerful mind & sparkling eyes which it remains a incurable, it can cure indifferences.
Agriculturist – Friendship is magical seed, as sown it blossoms endlessly, its flowers spreading fragrance all around.
Priest – Friendship is a God’s gift to everyone, so tend it lovingly. It is more precious than Gold.
B.A. (Prog), IIIrd Year
National Service Scheme, popularly known as N.S.S. was launched on Gandhiji’s birth centenary year 1969, in 37 universities involving 40,000 students with primary aim to develop the personality of the student volunteers through community service. Today, NSS has more than 20 lakh students volunteers its roll spread over 178 universities and 39+2 councils and directorate of vocational institutions. Since its inception, more than 2.51 crore students from various universities, colleges and institutions of higher studies have benefited from the NSS activities.
In Shyam Lal College (E), the N.S.S. students did very well under guidance of Dr. G.P. Aggarwal (Principal), Dr. G.K. Varshney and Dr. R. L. Gupta (NSS Programme Officer). Lectures for motivating students to work for social organizations were organized. Get togethers were organized for improving mutual co-operation among NSS volunteers.
The motive of NSS is "Not me but you" it underlines that the welfare of an individual ultimately depend on the welfare of the society as a whole.
NSS plays a very important role in character formation of students so that they may serve the society and nation in a better way. Many other social activities were organized by the unit for serving the society and the nation.
B.A. (Prog.) IIIyear.
Dengue is a disease caused by any one of four closely related viruses (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4). The viruses are transmitted to human by the bit of an infected mosquito. The principal symptom of dengue are high fever, severe headache backache, joint pains nausea & vomiting, eye pain and rash.
There is no specific medication for treatment of a dengue injection. Dengue victim should take risk drink plenty of Fluids and consult the Dengue Branch of CDC for more information.
Dengue viruses may be introduced into areas by travelers who become, injected white visiting other of the tropics.
To reduce the no of mosquitoes items that collect rainwater or we used to store water should be conversed or properly discarded. Pets animal watering containers and vases should be emptied and scoured at least once a week.
Preventing epidemic disease require a co-ordinate community effort to increase awareness about dengue / DHF.
B.A. (H), IIIrd Year
F - FUN
R - RATIONAL
I - IMPARTIAL
E - EMOTIONAL
N - NEVER ENDING
D - DEPENDABLE
S - SPECIAL
H - HEART WARMING
I - INTERESTING
P - PRICELESS
B.A. (H), IIIrd Year
The life of a student is full of care
Books here, books there, books everywhere
In history the names of dead are used
In learning them, we get confused
The grapes of english are really sour,
To grapple with it is not in our power
In maths we do sums of angles
Solving them our mind gets tangled
Our eyes are often filled with tears
When we realize our exams are near
B.A. (H), IIIrd Year
Divide and rule is a cruel tool
The English, calculating and cool
Used this rule the Indians to befool
Indians, very trusting and simple,
Got entrapped as they were gullible.
Their condition became pitiable
Through their fingers slipped the sand
Yet they did not understand
The intentions of the Englishman.
What was once called the golden bird
Became worse than a cattle herd.
This woeful tale you must have heard
Now that we are free again,
Let us our freedom retain.
Fall not a prey to this rule again.
What is Life
B.A. (H), IIIrd Year
Life is a challenge - Meet it.
Life is a gift - Accept it.
Life is a adventure - Dare it.
Life is a sorrow - Overcome it.
Life is a duty - Perform it.
Life is a game - Play it.
Life is a mystery - Unfold it.
Life is a song - Sing it.
Life is an opportunity - Take it.
Life is a journey - Complete it.
Life is a promise - Fulfill it.
Life is a beauty - Praise it.
Life is a spirit - Realise it.
Life is a struggle - Fight it.
Life is a puzzle - Solve it.
Life is a goal - Achieve it.
Life is a love - Enjoy it.
Department of English
For someone like Amitav Ghosh, settled in the USA and educated at DoonSchool, St. Stephen’s, and Oxford, it must have been difficult to envisage the life of the villagers at Sundarban. But sociologist as he was, Ghosh seems to have made use of the method of participant observation for depicting the life of the fisherfolk and the cultivators in the fictitious Lusibari village. The novel manages to create a vivid sense of the tide country and its people through its graphic portrayal of the mangrove thickets, the glow-worms, the ‘lunar rainbow,’ the disastrous storms and rains that flood the country along with the legends of Bon Bibi and Dokkhin Rai, the superstitions circulating around the deities, the rituals of worship, and the staple fish curry.
The Hungry Tide rotates around the settlement of Morichjhapi, which had been part of the tiger reserve, by East Bengali refugees who had migrated from the settlement camp at Dandakaranya, Madhya Pradesh, and the displacement of the settlers by state repression in 1979. Although the novel begins years after the Morichjhapi incident, it foregrounds the ideals of the movement and the reactions it generated. The efforts of the settlers to occupy the island lead us to think of the grossly inadequate measures of the Indian Government to rehabilitate the Bengali refugees. Ghosh locates the movement in the international arena and shows an understanding of the environmentalists’ perspective as well as that of the settlers. As the latter see it, the settlement is the site of an age-old struggle between human beings and the wilderness. By contrast, the cetologist, Piya’s indignation at the sight of a tiger, trapped in a buffalo pen, being set alight by villagers is typical of the environmentally sensitive reader’s perspective. However, as everything in the novel, the environmentalist’s reaction is also qualified by a counterpart - in this case, by Kusum’s story of her father being stalked and killed by a tiger. Significantly, the novel gains from Ghosh’s refusal to commit himself to an easy solution. That no simple answer is possible is seen by the fact that when, towards the end of the novel, Piya manages to get generous offers of foreign funding for research, she refuses to set up any ambitious environmental projects in the tide country without finding out how it would affect the people.
We view the Morichjhapi colony as well as the massacre chiefly through the notebook of Nirmal — a Marxist school teacher, an ineffectual revolutionary, enthused by Karl Marx and Rainer Maria Rilke, ironically seeking to discover poetry in a Marxist revolution — who dies soon after the incident. The picture that emerges through Nirmal’s writing - is that of an egalitarian community in the making, of a settlement bursting with spontaneous activity, enthusiasm, and determination, being ruthlessly demolished by state power. While the refugees had apparently hoped that a Communist government in West Bengal would not destroy the community’s efforts, their hopes were belied tragically by the Government, which first starved them to coerce them into submission and then unleashed destruction on them through hired hooligans.
The novel interweaves love, idealism, and the struggle for survival in a world of human exploitation and natural fury. As in many of Ghosh’s novels, characters from all classes in society and from distant parts of the globe congregate in the tide country Piya, the cetologist, offspring of the Indian diaspora in America, Kanai, the successful linguist running a translation bureau in Delhi, the middle-class Nirmal and his wife Nilima, Kusum, the intrepid, resourceful, and determined young refugee and her son Fokir, who grows up to be a fisherman. Love cuts across class boundaries; Fokir falls in love with Piya, who seems to return the sentiment, Kanai flirts with both Moyna, Fokir’s wife and Piya, and Nirmal, had almost unconsciously developed feelings for Kusum, as Kanai discovers from his notebook.
Ghosh’s achievement lies in preserving the non-judgmental stance and giving each his due. The idealists, Nirmal and Fokir are matched with practical and realistic wives- Nilima and Moyna. While the self-sacrificing dreamers attract most of our sympathy, the materialist but dedicated Nilima focusing all her energies on building and maintaining a hospital in the tide country receives our respect. She puts her case with remarkable clarity and readers recognize the justice of her claim: "But those who’re patient, those who try to be strong, who try to build things - no one ever sees any poetry in that, do they" (387). Even the successful, complacent, and selfish, Kanai invites understanding.
Finally, in writing the novel with such a diverse cast, Ghosh accomplishes the task of differentiating between the speeches of the educated and the uneducated. The English that Piya and Kanai speak demonstrates the ease, fluency, and colloquial idiom of the cultivated classes all over the world: "I’d say Moyna is the kind of woman who would be good for a brief but exciting dalliance. A fling as we used to say. But as for anything more lasting - no. I’d say someone like you would be much more to my taste" (220). By contrast, the language of Nirmal’s reported conversation with acquaintances clearly makes us aware that it is translated from Bengali: "And who, moshai, might you be?" Again, the language of Kusum has the simplicity, grace, and tunefulness of the child of nature: "Who are these people, I wondered, who love animals so much that they are willing to kill us for them? ... Where do they live, these people, do they have children, do they have mothers, fathers? ... we were just human beings, trying to live as human beings always have, from the water and the soil... this is how humans have always lived - by fishing, by clearing and by planting the soil" (262). The novel’s many attractions seem as diverse as the characters that people it.
B.A. (Prog), IInd Year
Punjab for fighting, Bengal for writing
Goa for duty, Kashmir for beauty
Rajasthan for history, Maharashtra for victory
Mysore for silk, Haryana for milk
Gujrat for peace, Assam for tea leaves
Kerala for brain, Uttar Pradesh for sugarcane
Himachal for apples, Orissa for temples
Madhya Pradesh for tribals, Bihar for minerals
B.A. (Prog), IInd Year
Many kind of faces are seen in the classroom like :-
1) Attentive Faces : They see, hear and follow everything which the teacher speaks and writes on the black board. They can answer any question put to them.
2) Semi-Attentive Faces : They see and hear everything but do not understand anything due to lack of concentration.
3) Inattentive Faces : They are also called absent-minded. They neither try to see nor hear anything.
4) Pretending Faces : They constantly smile and nod their heads as if they understand everything.
5) Desperate Faces : Their job is to look desperately for irrelevant activities and to pass comments to other students.
6) Talkative Faces : They only talk and disturb others when the teacher faces the black board they start talking and when the teacher looks towards them, they start nodding their heads as if they understand everything.
7) Pathetic Faces : They are the ones who don’t understand what is happening in the class. Everything goes above their head. They always struggle to understand the ABC of what is going on.
8) Sleeping Faces : Some students, rather I should say the ‘heros and heroines’ of the class take the risk of dozing off when the teacher is just in front of them. They are not bothered about what is being taught and said in the class and are in their
B.Com (P), IInd Year
Friendship is a precious gift that cannot be bought or sold.
But its value is far greater than a mountain made of gold.
For gold is cold and lifeless, it can neither see nor hear.
And in the time of trouble it is powerless to cheer.
It has no ear to listen no heart to understand.
It cannot bring you comfort or reach out a helping hand.
So, when you ask God for a gift, be thankful if He sends,
No diamonds, pearls or riches but "The love of real true friends"
B. Com. (P), IIIrd Year
Life with a Gemini is a journey in unpredictability, you never know which personality you meet next. They are experimentaters, enthusiastic & wickedly naught. According to "Delhi Times" Geminis are the creative geniuses who are ever ready to flirt but will scarcely commit.
Geminis are of dual nature. They are known to have many personalities & their mood changes frequently. They are versatile. They are known to do ten things at one time. They are known to be flirts, who try to avoid serious relationships. They love to try different things— be it food, clothes, or activities it comes naturally to the Geminis. They are very adaptable kind of persons & are able to tackle any task or activity. They are curious by nature, they love exploring people & places to attain knowledge. Also, they are impatient. They often change their interest & activities & are eager to know everything in a short time.
There are some true successful Geminis in our country like Karan Johar (known as a good film maker), Shilpa Shetty (a famous film actress) & Ekta Kapoor (a TV queen of the country). These all are known to almost everybody in the country.
I am too a Geminian & I am proud to be a true Geminian. I have experienced everything that I have stated above. So, if you are Geminian, then become a true Geminian.
B.A. (H) Pol. Sc., IIIrd Year
For success a planned effort is always essential. A planned effort is nothing but understanding, analyzing and implementing ways and means to be successful.
Though hard work is equally essential in every field of life it is most important for a student life. One has to forget all the luxuries and comforts to be successful. Hard work turns a weak and ordinary person into a strong, capable and extraordinary person. Hard work also develops the overall personality of a person. If the person is successful, he is liked and adored by everybody and success can only be earned through hard work and firm determination. Lives of great personalities are example of hard work. Who would not want to become a JRD Tata someday?
B.Com, IIIrd Year
In this present era of education system, it has been realized that most of the students are struggling hard to achieve their aim in life. It is due to the lack of few important factors which are as follows:
Predetermined Goals : The aim must be determined at the beginning of the career opportunities.
Planning : Thinking in advance what has to be done, when to be done and how to be done! Plan a proper time-table to complete the work.
Positive Attitude : There must be a positive approach to achieve the desired goals.
Realistic Approach : There must be whole hearted effort to realize the objective.
Determination and Implementation : There must be sound and firm self-decision to achieve the pre-determined goal.
Punctuality : Managing time in a systematic and effective manner.
Accurate Decision : All the activities must be directed only towards the single direction, i.e. achievement of goal only.
Self-discipline : Being obedient to the teachers, parents, and elders to create self-discipline for better guidance and result.
Concentration : Concentrate only on the content already planned for the effective result to be obtained.
Will Power : There must be strong will power i.e. eagerness to achieve something in life.
Self-confidence : Always believe in yourself your capability, imagination, creativity and intelligence.
If all the above mentioned steps are followed religiously then it is certain that every goal and aim shall be met successfully. Best of luck to everyone for all their future endeavours
B. Com (P), IInd Year
Do you believe me??
There is something about life I want to tell you.
Be strong enough to face the world each day.
Be weak enough to know you cannot do anything alone.
Be generous to those who need your help.
Be frugal with what you need yourself.
Be wise enough to know that you do not know everything.
Be foolish enough to believe in miracles.
Be willing to share your joys.
Be willing to share the sorrows of others.
Be a leader when you see a path that others have missed.
Be a follower when you are shrouded in the midst of uncertainty.
Be the first to congratulate an opponent who succeeds.
Be the last to criticize a colleague who fails.
Be sure where your next step will fall, so that you will not stumble.
Be sure of your final destination, in case you are going the wrong way.
Be loving to those who love you.
Be loving to those who don’t love you, and they may change.
"Have a good luck and good life".
B.Com. (P), IIIrd Year
There is a general idea that this world is teeming with evil, imperfection, disturbance, despair and the sundry. Often one wonders how one can attain peace and tranquility amidst them and how one can reinvigorate oneself. Here is a perfect example
"Be like a tongue in the midst of the teeth, carefully, confidently, courageously going about its tasks without getting hurt".
Freedom breeds indiscipline. Ever since the dawn of civilization, man has been born free to lead or live and act according to his conscience and instinct. So where does the question of freedom breeding indiscipline arise from?
We all must agree, "Caged birds accept each other but flight is what they long for". This is a universal truth. The more one is tried to be suppressed the more one turns revolting and this leads to indiscipline which leads to adamancy, stubbornness, non-cooperation etc.
At times freedom can lead to wrong choice, but then it is the wrong choice that will become our teacher. Also nature is competent enough to support its creatures, through it known and unknown wasps who’s disciplined the water drops transforming into pearl within the oyster?
Where do the ants enroll themselves to learn to be meticulous? "Can there be a better symmetry than that beehive? Likewise, we human being have also been endowed with a instictive self disciplined. It is only when we as parents, teachers, guardians attempt to create an unnatural mould give birth to all kinds of problems and chaos.
So if you are an effective managers of yourself, your discipline comes from within. It is a function of your independent will. You are a disciple, a follower of your own deep values and their sources. As bone to human body and axle to the wheel and the song to the bird and air to the wind, so is freedom, the essence of life, whatever is done without it is imperfect.
Self conquest means conquest over one’s sense organs. Emotion like, anger, lust, jealousy, hatred and revenge must be kept under control. If all of us practise self-conquest and live a truthful life, loving all as equals, the world will become a beautiful place to live in.
Kyon, chalti hai pawan?
B’coz of evaporation.
Kyon jhume hai gagan?
B’coz of earth revolution.
Kyon machalta hai mann?
B’coz of excessive respiration.
Na tum jano na hum
But I give all the reasons.
Kyon aati hai bahar?
B’coz of change in season.
Kyon khota hai karar?
B’coz of excessive tension.
Kyon hota hai pyar?
B’coz of opposite pole's attraction.
Na tum jano na hum
But all these are science phenomenon.
Kyon gum hai har disha?
B’coz you have poor sense of direction.
Kyon hota hai nasha?
B’coz of drug addiction.
Kyon aata hai maza?
B’coz of knowledge explosion.
Na tum jano na hum
But science gives us all the information
I was thirteen when India became free in 1947. Our family was then in Dera Ismail Khan, N.W.F.P.; now in Pakistan. As a result of the partition of India, we had to leave our ancestral home and migrate to Burma.
I was not in India at the time of the celebrations of Independence in August 1947; but I listened to with great pride the speeches of our leaders including ‘tryst with destiny’ by Jawaharlal Nehru and his great vision of India.
After 60 years, those dreams have soured. We have made some material progress if the Bakhras and Bokaros are indicators of our advancement; but spiritually we have gone in the gutter. We have forgotten the principles of service and austerity. We have no role models. Leaders have become thugs, teachers mercenaries and parents too busy making money.
Men of hollow character are today occupying important positions in the government. In chapter VI of the ‘Light of Truth’, which deals with the Science of Government, Swami Dayanand says: " Let a nation elect the most learned men, the most devout men, and men of the most praiseworthy character; and let that great man who possesses most excellent qualities, is highly accomplished, and bears most honourable character be made the "Head of the State".
The founding fathers of our constitution had visualized a glorious future. We are today groping in the dark. We seem to have taken a wrong twist - our vision is dimmed and our way lost.
Sixty years have passed. But our so called educationists have not been able to frame a National Policy on Education. The reports of the various Education Commissions are gathering dust. We are trying to impose English on our students when they cannot express themselves well even in Hindi. Parents who cannot sign their own names in English, take pride in sending their children to English Medium Schools. We are ashamed of our great heritage and culture because politically we have become free but mentally we have remained slaves.
We talk of national integration when after sixty years of independence; we have not been able to evolve a national language. We talk of giving the country a clean administration when our leaders themselves are the most corrupt. India has the dubious distinction of being the 8th most corrupt nation in the world. We call ourselves ‘Gandhians’ because we follow the two rituals of offering flowers at the’ Samadhi’ of Mahatma Gandhi on his birth and death anniversaries. Our leaders move about in air-conditioned cars, live in palatial mansions and "yet call themselves ‘Gandhians’. .
Gandhi had said: "Those alone who have been affected by Western civilization have been enslaved. There is danger of our people looking to external forces and external aid for salvation instead of seeking to achieve it by evolving internal strength." He was convinced that the industralised and centralised society of the West rested on the exploitation of the masses. And yet we followed the Soviet and American models.
Aroon Purie says : "We have matured as a democracy, but with some notable exceptions, we have produced remarkably immature politicians who have miserably failed to create a vision and inspire the nation".
R.K. Laxman observes : "The nexus between crime and politics has become an obvious feature of our system. Bandits sit in the Parliament; corrupt, charge-sheeted ministers continue to rule... graft and scams have proliferated at all levels".
Our present Prime Minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh, is a man of great integrity but he has proved to be ineffective as he has allied himself with crooked, sneaking, unscrupulous scoundrels. Abraham Lincoln once remarked: "If you want to test a man’s character, give him power".
Long ago Swami Vivekanand had warned our countrymen against hankering blindly after the Materialistic Philosophy of the West. His message was: " Spirituality is the basis of life. If you give up that spirituality, leaving it aside to go after the materialising civilization of the West; the result will be that in three generations you will be an extinct race; because the backbone of the nation will be broken, the foundation upon which the national edifice has been built will be undermined and the result will be annihilation all around."
The prophetic words of Swami Vivekanand are coming true today. Our leaders should wake up from their slumber. They have long fooled the masses with empty and meaningless slogans. Our masses are now getting impatient and restless. If the leaders do not see the writing on the wall, posterity will never forgive them.
Deptt. of English
A support group for women of the University of Delhi, Staff, Teachers, Karmacharis and Students. PEHEL as the name suggests is a lively and supportive network for women for all sections of the university community.
Any one can become a member of the yahoo! group at
PEHEL - email@example.com
However, the University of Delhi could take the initiative by formalizing these mechanisms and improving life for women on campus with a women's support group. The idea for this group emerged from discussions between
students of the M.Phil course on feminism, "A Voice of Her Own", and the course instructor. Prof. Shormistha Panja, of English Department. First meeting was held in September, 2005 since then the group has organized many activities as Safe Delhi campaign with JAGORI, PEHEL MELA on Feb. 15, Nukkad Naatak, talk on Domestic Violence Bill, etc. All members of PEHEL function merely on voluntary basis.
PEHEL members run a helpline.
The number is 9999273342.
This is a forum where a space is provided in which we can raise issues that trouble us. For more information one can dial any friend
Ankita - 9810382973
Divya - 9899659944
Indu - 9911141076
Joya - 9891616207
Mndita - 9891154010
Nidhi - 9810911380
Preeti - 9810565831
Prem - 9810600363
Shormistha - 9818286258
Sonali - 9810270851
Vibha - 9350734014
We the members of PEHEL are committed to help in every possible way and urge you all to come forward and help us in our endeavours.